Using SSE to Implement ChatGPT in Rails
創建: 2023-05-01  

中文版本 (Chinese version):


When using ChatGPT, you may notice that the response is not returned all at once after completion, but rather in chunks, as if the response was being typed out:

About SSE

If we check OpenAI API document, we can find that there's a param called stream for the create chat completion API.

If set, partial message deltas will be sent, like in ChatGPT. Tokens will be sent as data-only server-sent events as they become available, with the stream terminated by a data: [DONE] message.

So what is SSE?

Basically, SSE, short for “Server-Sent Event”, is a simple way to stream events from a server. It is used for sending real-time updates from a server to a client over a single HTTP connection. With SSE, the server can push data to the client as soon as it becomes available, without the need for the client to constantly poll the server for updates.

SSE can be implemented through the HTTP protocol:

  1. The client make a GET request to the server:
  2. The client sets Connection: keep-alive to establish a long-lived connection
  3. The server sets a Content-Type: text/event-stream response header
  4. The server starts sending events that look like this:
event: add
data: This is the first message, it
data: has two lines.

Difference between SSE and WebSocket

It looks like SSE is similar to WebSocket? they are both used for real-time communication between a server and a client, but there are some differences between them.

  1. SSE provides unidirectional communication only (server -> client). WebSockets on the other hand give us real-time bidirectional communication.
  2. SSE is an HTTP-based technology, while WebSocket is a TCP-based technology. This means that SSE is built on top of the HTTP protocol and uses long polling techniques to achieve real-time communication, while WebSocket directly sends and receives data over the TCP connection, which can achieve faster real-time communication.
  3. Another difference is in how they handle re-connections. SSE automatically attempts to reconnect to the server if the connection is lost, whereas WebSocket requires the client to initiate a new connection if the connection is lost.

In conclusion, SSE seems like a simpler alternative to websockets if you only need to have the server send events. WebSocket, on the other hand, is more powerful and can be used in more complex scenarios, such as real-time chat applications or multi-player games.


Now let's talk about how to use OpenAI's API to receive Server-Sent Events (SSE) on your server, and forward those events to your client using SSE.

Here is the workflow for implementing SSE in Rails to use ChatGPT:

  1. The client creates an SSE EventSource to server endpoint with SSE configured.
  2. The server receives the request and sends a request to OpenAI API using the stream: true parameter.
  3. The server listens for server-side events from the OpenAI API connection created in step 2. For each event received, the server can forward that message to the client. This keeps our API secret because all the communication to OpenAI happens on our server.
  4. After the client receives the entire response, OpenAI sends a special message to let us know to close the connection. The [Done] message signals that we can close the SSE connection to OpenAI, and our client can close the connection to our server.

Use Rails as server API

After understanding SSE and the workflow, we start coding the entire process.

  • client setup
const fetchResponse = () => {
  const evtSource = new EventSource(`/v1/completions/live_stream?prompt=${prompt}`)
  evtSource.onmessage = (event) => {
    if (event) {
      const response = JSON.parse(
    } else {
  evtSource.onerror = () => {

We uses the EventSource API to establish a server-sent event connection. And the onmessage event will be triggered when a message is received from the server.


  • server setup
class CompletionsController < ApplicationController
  include ActionController::Live

  def live_stream
    response.headers["Content-Type"] = "text/event-stream"
    response.headers["Last-Modified"] =
    sse =, retry: 300), live_stream_params).call

We include the ActionController::Live module to enable live streaming.

As we mentioned above, the content-type response headers should be set to text/event-stream.

Please note that the stream response in Rails 7 does not work by default due to a rack issue, you can check for more details on this issue.

it took me hours to find out the issue is related to rack… Rails includes Rack::ETag by default, which will buffer the live response.

anyway, this line is necessary if your rack version is 2.2.x:

response.headers["Last-Modified"] =


  • OpenAI API
module ChatCompletion
  class LiveStreamService
    def call
      client.create_chat_completion(request_body) do |chunk, overall_received_bytes, env|
        data = chunk[/data: (.*)\n\n$/, 1]

    def send_message(data)
      response = JSON.parse(data)
      if response.dig("choices", 0, "delta", "content")
        @result = @result + response.dig("choices", 0, "delta", "content")
      sse.write(status: 200, content: @result)


    def client
      @client ||=

The code above uses an OpenAI gem to send request to OpenAI API, it's a simple Ruby wrapper and support streaming response.

BTW, If you're using Hotwire in Rails, you can check this guide.


That's all! Thanks for reading!

demo website:

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